Ombudsman & Tribunals
The powers granted to the Ombudsman by the Code of Civil Procedure for summoning and requiring attendance of any individual, compelling the production of documents, accepting testimony on affidavits, and giving commissions for witness examination are the same as those granted to a Civil Court. The Federal Legislature is empowered by the Constitution to create administrative courts, special courts, and commissions to handle federal matters. 58 As a result, a number of specialised courts and commissions have been established, all of which are managed administratively by the federal government. However, some of these courts also work under the aegis of other ministries or agencies.
The Ministry of Law & Justice oversees the majority of these courts. They include: Special Courts (Control of Narcotics Substances), Banking Courts (Recovery of Loans), Special Courts (Offenses in Banks), Special Courts (Customs, Taxation & Anti-smuggling), Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Environmental Tribunal, Insurance Appellate Tribunal, Customs, Excise & Sales Tax Appellate Tribunal, Special Judges (Central), Drugs Courts, Anti-terrorism Courts, and Accountability Courts. Similar to federal courts, provincial governments also have their own unique tribunals that were created by statute.